Agilent’s X-parameters* functionality represents a new category of nonlinear network parameters for high-frequency design. X-parameters:
- Are applicable to both large-signal and small-signal conditions, and for linear and nonlinear components.
- Characterize the amplitudes and relative phase of harmonics generated by components under large input power levels at all ports.
- Correctly characterize impedance mismatches and frequency mixing behavior to allow accurate simulation of cascaded nonlinear X-parameter blocks, such as amplifiers and mixers in wireless design.
- Functionality was included in the Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer (NVNA), and the Advanced Design System in 2008.
- X-parameter model support was added to the SystemVue environment in 2010. SystemVue connects X-parameter models into RF system-level analysis, as well as full physical layer baseband/DSP simulations
- X-parameter model support was added to the Genesys RF and Microwave simulation environment for circuit and system design in 2010.
Agilent's X-parameters functionality can help you overcome a key challenge in RF engineering, namely that of nonlinear impedance differences, harmonic mixing, and nonlinear reflection effects that occur when components are cascaded under large signal operating conditions. X-parameters help solve this complex cascading problem: if you measure the X-parameters of a set of components individually, you can calculate the X-parameters and hence the nonlinear transfer function of any cascade made from them. Calculations based on X-parameters are usually performed within a harmonic balance simulator environment.
See Measurement Solution Example: X-Parameter Measurements
* "X-parameters" is a trademark of Agilent Technologies, Inc. The X-parameters format and underlying equations are open and documented. For more information, refer to X-parameters Open Documentation, Trademark Usage & Partnerships.
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