Agilent’s X-parameters* functionality represents a new category of nonlinear network parameters for high-frequency design. X-parameters:
- Are applicable to both large-signal and small-signal conditions, and for linear and nonlinear components.
- Characterize the amplitudes and relative phase of harmonics generated by components under large input power levels at all ports.
- Correctly characterize impedance mismatches and frequency mixing behavior to allow accurate simulation of cascaded nonlinear X-parameter blocks, such as amplifiers and mixers in wireless design.
- Functionality was included in the Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer (NVNA), and the Advanced Design System in 2008.
- X-parameter model support was added to the SystemVue environment in 2010. SystemVue connects X-parameter models into RF system-level analysis, as well as full physical layer baseband/DSP simulations
- X-parameter model support was added to the Genesys RF and Microwave simulation environment for circuit and system design in 2010.
Agilent's X-parameters functionality can help you overcome a key challenge in RF engineering, namely that of nonlinear impedance differences, harmonic mixing, and nonlinear reflection effects that occur when components are cascaded under large signal operating conditions. X-parameters help solve this complex cascading problem: if you measure the X-parameters of a set of components individually, you can calculate the X-parameters and hence the nonlinear transfer function of any cascade made from them. Calculations based on X-parameters are usually performed within a harmonic balance simulator environment.
See Measurement Solution Example: X-Parameter Measurements
* "X-parameters" is a trademark of Agilent Technologies, Inc. The X-parameters format and underlying equations are open and documented. For more information, refer to X-parameters Open Documentation, Trademark Usage & Partnerships.
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Analyzer changes fundamental way communications networks are designed
Microwave Journal Cover Article: X-parameters Fundamentally Changing Nonlinear Microwave Design
Provides an overview of the invention and need for x-parameters to model the behavior of non-linear devices. This is an article reprint from Microwave Journal, Issue March 2010, Vol.53. No.3
PDF 771 KB
X-Parameters: Commercial Implementations for the Latest Technology Enable Mainstream Applications
This article reprint from Microwave Journal introduces advances in commercially available solutions for characterization, modeling, and design of nonlinear components and systems based on X-parameters
PDF 1.92 GB